Culture is a bottomless well of expression, emotions and actions. What the light and heat are to life, so is culture to inner and outer development of the personality of the individuals and nation. Humanity as a whole is indivisible. But it is separate from particular to general for identity; tribe, nationality and nation-wise. So is relatively true of Culture, though in its culmination it has to be a unified whole. Till that perfect evolution of human nature is reached, nations and countries will continue to cling to their individually accumulated cultural wealth and treasure because the same have been nursed and nourished through centuries of particular experience and peculiar knowledge. Social influences and racial prejudices, instinct of survival and the perils of perishability, But hope is a good breakfast. So let us hope that with scientific knowledge and technology developing by leaps and bounds, swift and safe communications making more frequent and intimate social interaction possible, there might emerge a synthesis of many cultures which can rightly be called a cosmopolitan Culture that cannot be contained by respective national flags and frontiers whether that is only a wishful thinking of a visionary or a reality of tomorrow, time alone can tell. I wish and pray that the terror of total annihilation sets the minds of men, particularly the mighty men and media, thinking to avert a situation where 'he-monkey and she-monkey' will have to start again.
But till that unities are achieved, I shall return to my basic theme
of Sindhi Culture and treat it at some length. Following are the basic
and essential ingredients of Sindhi Culture, the process of thousand years,
a particular culture is created, which takes a particular form, which becomes
the national heritage of nation; which they consider their valuable asset
and try to preserve and improve. In the future, when various nations will
come near to each other then there is possibility of formation of uniformity
in culture of human beings, which will be the combination of best ingredients
of various cultures. A culture includes four ingredients:
It has been established that the human being's primitive age was savage. Later, the man entered into pastoral age and took to cattle grazing but remained Nomad. After remaining long time in that age they settled down near the rivers, where they constructed small huts, cultivated crops and progressed t~ citizenship and civilization. So this is how they started civilization. How these people originally started is not yet known, but the antiquities, which have been found out from archaeological findings, Sindh's last 5000 years indicate that some of them inhabited on the bank of the Indus river and formed settlements and villages. They also formulated alphabet and started reading and writing. They learned the art of statue-making, different kinds of dresses, ornaments, cattle breeding and agriculture. They continued their forward march for town planning and they learned to construct the town with planning and starting trade and commerce. They entered into barter system, and exchanged goods with there, the then known outside wold. As presumed, the trade was done through two routes (i) by rivers and sea on boats and ships, which they constructed themselves and through that route they traded with Persia, Mesopotamia, Syria and Egypt on one side and on the other side with Burma and Bengal. Several things that have been found out they could have imported only through ~a from those countries, (ii) The second route of their trade was through land, by way of horses, donkeys, camels, bullock-carts only. From the archaeological findings it has been found out that certain things which original in Samarkand, Bukhara, Afghanistan and Central India and found in the antiquities of Sindh, could have come only by the surface route. In those days, Elaine, Babylon, Summair, Egypt were among the civilized countries. From the excavation of those countries certain things belonging to Sindh, including the coins and other materials of Sindh, have been turned out there, and certain things of these countries have been found out from the archaeological excavations in Sindh. So, it is evident that in those days there must have been communications with those countries.
The world famous historian, Arnold Tynbee is of the opinion that like trees, animals and men grow and glow and reach their end so in the same manner nations and civilizations also get their lease of life. They also pass their time and ultimately decline and decay and die. In Sindh, its first civilization existed about 5500 years back. It is presumed that this civilization belonged to Dravadian people, whose story I have narrated in previous chapters. This civilization continued for two thousand years after that, about two thousand years back, the Aryan people came from central Asia and occupied the country. They were not so civilized nor h their citizenship like that of the Dravadian, but they were powerful militant and newcomers. Therefore they conquered the cities of lakhs people and occupied their places and started their own citizenship and civilization. It has been found out that their script, religious belief, and customs were different from their predecessors. But they accepted certain things from the previous people. Their civilization and citizenship continued for two thousand years. Out of that sewerage emerged a mixed civilization which bears the imprints of Persian, Greek, Arab, Pathan and British influences. Therefore we enumerate and divide different civilizations of Sindh in three phases:
1. DRAVADIAN CIVILIZATION PERIOD:
The history of Dravadian and their religious beliefs has already narrated in previous chapters, but here I will narrate their social information. It seems the main occupation of their life depended irrigation, cattle-breeding, trade, fishing and small industries. They cultivated different crops among them Wheat, Jowar, Paddy and Oil seeds to be the main products. They know the cultivation of cotton, which can be ascertained from their carvings and clothes. It is possible that their dresses had been made from animal wool too, but crop cultivation has proved the fact that in those days the Babylon rulers sent for the cottonseeds and introduced that crop in Mesopotamia. The coins and stamps found out from the excavations, bear yet another proof. They used to wear different dresses as are evident from the dress of the Statue of the dancing girls. Such dresses can easily be compared to the dresses of the modern times. From those pictures, it has been discovered that the method of their hair dressing and as also the several kinds of ornaments, in which metals like gold, silver, precious stones, diamonds and other materials were used, which were not produced in their country but were imported form Burma, Bengal, Central India, Persia, Afghanistan and North China through their trade connections. The historians therefore have opined that unless in those days they had some trade connections with the above said countries the modem manners and the articles discovered could not have been found here. From the excavations of Moen-Jo-Daro, it has been found that they used to construct grain godowns (stocking) and barns which were either utilized for storage of grains for trade purposes or they were used as Government godowns, which were used for storage of grains to be used in lean years of famine. Those storehouses were constructed with such materials that their remnants can be found even after the passage of 5000 years. In those days bullock-carts were used for the purpose of taking materials from one place to another. Some toys made of baked earth have been found out that resemble the bullock-carts used in the modern age. Several kinds of house-hold utensils were prepared from the baked earth for storage of grains and to be used as water Jars, water glasses, mugs, plates and flower vases. Material for the burning of saints or religious rituals was also made. The printed Kashi (glazed tiles) utensils with flower paintings were also prepared to contain some eatables. The picture of several animals, birds, flowers and trees were printed on bigger jars and vast pots. Some of the articles found out from tile excavations are statues of males and females, garlands of precious stones and caps and turbans (head gears). All these articles are either of baked earth or some of the metals. Several statues of animals made out of these materials have also been found. Chicken, monkeys, dogs, crocodiles, tortoise and various kinds of pictures also add to the gallery of the findings of Moen-Jo-Daro. Several statues of men have been found Out in which some had beard, some were shaved and some had their hair cut and some statues had ornated dresses. Women had different kinds of their haircut and hair-dresses. Some articles bear the pictures of animals with one horn, which appears to be eating from some jar. Some form of alphabet has also been written on the stamps found. The alphabet or dialect has not yet been deciphered. On these stamps sheep, buffaloes, bullocks with raised hump, lions, ibex, elephants hippopotamus and monkeys were carved in a good style. The instruments of music, coins and mutton masalas, grinding utensils, rings and pins to be used for hair dressing and mirrors, copper arm rings, sewing needles, fishing materials, garlands made of copper and other metals, axes, precious stones for garlands and ear and finger rings add to the treasurer of the findings of that age. These are the things, which provide the information about the life style of those people their villages, towns, agriculture and trade were the main factor and cause of their prosperity. These things point out their social life. The buildings of Moen-Jo-Daro were mostly made of baked bricks, where they had wells and bath-rooms and out-lets and drains in the streets for the sewerage water. Town had an elaborate drainage system. From the information acquired of that age, it appears that the society was divided into several groups:
After the Dravadian, Aryan people came from North-West and occupied Sindh. They looted cities and occupied various towns. They were militant, nomad aggressive and physically strong. They had their own traditions and folklore. They were part of great Aryan people some of whom went to Europe, some to Persia and some came to Sindh from where they migrated to India. Mostly they drove out Dravadian from the planes of Sindh and Punjab and continued to stay in mountains, seashore, desert and forests only. Most of them passed their life like untouchables and slaves and these people called the old people un-Aryans, yet several adopted characteristics Irony them. It is beyond our scope to narrate as to what the Aryan 5 took from Dravadian from their religious beliefs and words of language etc. That question requires the great investigation and research. Therefore it cannot form the part of the scope of our narration. Though it is common, that the old things merge themselves into new forms, yet what is certain is that the Aryans and the Darvadians belong to separate races and different languages. Darvadians language had some similarity with other languages. But Aryans had separate race and language. Their folklore, religious beliefs were separate. Vedas, Puranas and Samaritis were the inventions of Aryans. They have left their folklore of militancy, battles and various wars with the opponents and left tales and history in their books. Originally their language was Prakirt and subsequently it progressed to Sanskrit. They invented separate script and left their history of wars in the form of Ramaa’in, Maha Bharat etc. They left their influences and language in Sindh and India. The linguistics have named their language as Indo-European language. In the South India, Malayalm, Telegue and Tamil languages are remnants of Dravadian. The Brauhi language also contains several Dravadian words.
Aryans left their folklore, which we call the second age of civilization of Sindhu Desh. Aryans immigrated in Sindhu Desh about 2000 years BC. Their civilization dominated Sindh for nearly 2500 years when Aryan's second wave came to Sindh about 600 BC. Those were Persian and left their traces. After that the third branch of Aryans came from Greece about 300 BC. Those also left traces. As both of them belong to Aryan branches, their civilizations can be counted among the Aryan civilizations. Aryans during their age of civilization left several new words and in its original form, it was called Sindhi Prakirt. In the same manner Punjabi, Hindi, Bengali, Marahati, Gujrati languages form the part of great Aryan Indo-European languages. Aryans started Panchaits and Monarchies and separate religious beliefs. Most of them were based on the basis of Vedas. But according to the circumstances and necessity of life they were given different names. First it was the religion of Brahmins but afterwards it was called Vedic and Hindu Dharam. Afterwards the several reformers that came started to reform Veda's religion and inaugurated different religions for instance Buddhism, Jainism, Zoroastrianism, Greek and Persian religions also came from the same source. Aryan like the beginning adopted on the basis of Darvadians, many old believes. Afterwards on the basis of Egypt, Summair, Babylon, Greek, and Fragia they started believing in three gods. Trinity, though the names and attributes of gods were different. Afterwards Persians progressed and produced the theory of two gods, Aharman and Aharmazd. Afterwards in India and Sindhu Desh, the theory of one God was produced which was called Vehdaniat (Monis,). They also believed in the theory of many spirits or Atmas. They did not believe in the theory according to which the spirits from where they used to come in life and after passing their life they used to meet at a place where on the basis of their good deeds or bad deeds they used to go to heaven or hell and where they had to pass their eternal life. But the theory of Aryan religion was different. According to them the spirits first came into matter and afterwards in trees and then animals and from animals they progressed according to experience and deeds to higher life and ultimately reached the status of Nirvanpudd, which according to the interpretation of Vehdaniat meant that the part was to be merged in the whole. As the theory from many gods gradually evolved to unity of God, they evolved the theory to reach Brahma, which means "Rooh-kul". Brahma is the name of God. They did not believe indifferent spirits and bodies but they considered them the attributes of God. When they reached the ultimate Brahma, they refused to believe in any other existence excepting God. According to interpretation of Sankara, Vehdaniat was non-existence of Duality. As this question has been sufficiently discussed in second chapter, I do not think it necessary to deal with this subject further. These Brahma basis of religion gave different interpretations. But passing their present life they gave the code of Maunoo Sumarti, which took different lines from the code of Messes. Aryans in the beg inning used to eat every thing but afterwards they discarded eating the flesh or animist things. They started eating grains and vegetables. On the other side for Dravadian they described different codes of eating. Among the Aryans they based their family life on exogamous basis. It means out of tribe or family but Dravadian started their family life on Endo-gamous basis, that means within the family but they prohibited mirages to mother, son, sister, brother, father, daughter, sister of father etc. On the side of Aryans the marriage within the same families was forbidden. Aryans afterwards divided the society in four groups or jattis.
III. THIRD AGE OF CIVILIZATION OF SINDHIS:
This period can be counted from fifth century AD upto this time. In which the Persians, Arabs, Pathans, Moguls, Europeans, especially Britons and present Muhajirs and Punjabi domination can be counted. This period has remained for 1500 years. According to the law of evolution and fall of various civilizations Dravadian and Aryan civilization had reached the downfall on account of various invasions, domination and influences of outsiders. Sindhi culture has lost its original separate existence, specialty and identity. Now it has mixture of various cultures. At present, Sindhi civilization is facing the onslaught of foreign influences. There is a war going on between original and new influences. In the majority of Sindhis its original civilization is under threat of losing its hold. The common man is becoming indifferent and self-effacing qualities of national feelings, valiant and noble past traditions, laudable sacrifices and self-assertion are loosening their hold. We have reached the stage where either we have to become strong and change the circumstances in our favor or give up the traditions and influences of the past. If you study the history of past 1500 years you will find that how the Iranians came, dominated and exploited the Sindhis and Sindhis slowly lost the power of defending themselves. But their language, religious beliefs and civilization, in spite of outside influences remained intact. Afterwards Arabs conquered the country and brought changes which l have narrated in the previous chapter. At present there is no Arab rule but the previous Arabian influence has created inferiority complex. The lacs of Sindhi people still consider themselves belonging to Arabian origin and take pride in it. Instead of calling themselves the descendants of Aryans, they proudly consider themselves to be descendants of nomad Arabs. They say the prayers in Arabic language of which they do not understand any thing. Despite Shah Latif, Sachal Sarmast and Sami's best teachings they continue to stick to Arabic language. And lacs of Sindhi people every year after spending crores of rupees go to Saudi Arabia for their salvation through Hajj and visiting many places for their salvation. That thing is remnant of Arabian imperialism, which they invented to divert their attention towards Arabian things instead of Sindhi traditions. At present Sindhis have adopted the script of Persio-Arabic language. Many of them have forgotten their saint’s traditions that advocated love, non-violence and belief in the theory of unity behind diversity. They follow the Arabic prejudices and violence and Arab Laws as if these things were real Islam. There are several persons in Sindh who believe, if they die in the Arabian country they will directly go to heaven, though they know that the dead bodies are thrown away in caves. They consider the water of Arab Wells purer than the water of Indus river and they consider the dust of Arabia pure and place it before their head while praying. Though Sindhis have driven-away Arabs from Sindh but their influence has not yet vanished. After the fall of Arab imperialism, invasions from Afghanistan started immediately. Mahmood Ghazanvi's attack can be considered the first attack from the West during the rule of Sammas followed by the invasions from Delhi. During the days of Allaudin, Sindhis got setback and after the Arghuns and Turkhans conquered Sindh. During that period the Persian Language became the State language. People used to wear big shalwars, coats, turbans and several persons traced their pedigree to the Pathan descendants. Several persons started to please the outside Moghul power, took part in the martyrdom of Shah Inayat Sufi. His so-called sin was that he supported the old religion's toleration and believed in Tusawuf (Mysticism). The several Waderas supported Mughal Governor against him. Mughal period continued in Sind for 200 years. During that period the Persian became the official language. And on account of that Sarhandi Pir's fanatics and religious bigotry became prelude. Moulvi Hashim Thatvi wrote a religious mandate, which can be read in my book named "Pegham-e-Latif". During the days of Mughal period what had happened in Sindh can be read from the book "Mazhar-e-Shahjahani" edited by Pir Husamuddin Rashdi and also from the book of "Tareekhe-Masoomi" written by Syed Masoom Shah Masoomi. After that Nadir Shah and Madad Khan Pathan invaded Sindh and did great harm to the settled life of Sindhis during the days of Kalhoras and Mirs, Sindhi again in spite of outside invasion started towards reconstruction and improvement. Soon after that the British occupied Sindh and on account of their administrative convenience they attached Sindh to Bombay Presidency, as a division under a Commissioner.
As a matter of policy, all colonial and imperialist powers, for good or bad, adopt certain measures. The British imperialism in India was no exception. The Britons recruited in their service the selfish and the spineless and the conscienceless natives to enrich their power, lengthen their rule and consolidate their interests. Chosen persons from upper class always of servile nature were given big Jagirs and land holdings to enlist and ensure their support to suppress the people. They introduced an institution of irresponsible, autocratic and passable bureaucracy to impose subjection and servitude upon the people and strengthen their grip and bondage over the country. They encouraged communalism and antagonism between Hindus and Muslims. They subtly emphasized religious differences and successfully divided the Indians and ruled them. They controlled all foreign trade and local wholesale commerce. All superior services and lucrative jobs were reserved for them. These officials created a class of middlemen who fleeced the agricultural growers as well as retail shopkeepers by charging high commission rates. As a result of these malpractices a class of moneylenders, who were mostly Hindus, sprang up. These moneylenders charged exorbitant rates of interest and as a security mortgaged their lands and other property, The defaulters were made victims of this avaricious transaction and had to surrender their lands. As a consequence the lending class rounded about thirty lakhs of agricultural lands and other property. City and town life improved in quality a little, but the overwhelming majority of population that lived in villages was ignored and neglected. The henchmen particularly Jagirdars and Sardars were given arms licenses, official patronage and titles, darbar chairs and honorary magisterial powers, all status symbols. All these despicable deeds were meant to depress and demoralize the people and further strengthen the exploitation and thus a rich class was created. Before the advent of the British, the Hindu merchant class had not even one percent agricultural lands but on account of this policy, at the end of British period, the Hindu banyas had acquired 30 lakhs acres of land in Sind. Entire trade and commerce in villages came into their hands and they started small-scale industries also. Their population was hardly 25%. But they captured 80% Government services. Educational Institutions were mostly in the towns and majority of Hindus and some Muslims resided in towns, on account of which the Hindus acquired more education. On account of corruption, money lending and services this class became rich. In contrast the villagers suffered in poverty. The town people thus acquired the financial and economic resources. Villagers in Sindh became landless harries (peasants), cattle owners, fishermen and laborers. Education and the partial prosperity generated interest in civil and political rights among the Hindus. In order to divert the attention of these people from this demand the Britons started supporting Muslim educated people against the Hindus thereby implicitly sponsoring sectarian and class struggle. People from both sides began to fight for their share in services, trade and power. They sponsored conflict between Muslims and Hindus, who became ranged against British Government and the educated and politically awakened Indians demanded their rights from the Britons. On the international scene, other imperialist and colonial powers were lured by domination over other people and their lands and appropriation of their resources In this war of supremacy India and other colonized Countries supported Britons with resources, money and manpower and armed forces. In the Second World War the Britons and their allies succeeded. But the people who had supported and helped sustain British Raj in the World War, they could not get any reward for their services with the result that in those countries especially in India the movement of freedom gained more momentum and strength. In order to contain such movement, they started many maneuvers. Amongst them one measure was that in India, on the basis of one nation, quasi-democratic government policy was adopted, envisaging a sort of limited self-rule in India. They initiated the formation of Indian National Congress. As the majority of population in India was Hindu, it was therefore presumed that the government power would be transferred to local people, The logic of such a transfer would naturally be that the power would fall in the hands of Hindus. To dilute the monopoly of power the Britons encouraged their loyalists among the Muslims to drum up the emotions and apprehensions against Hindu domination after independence. Muslims were given to understand that safeguards of their interests lay in the formation of their own political communal organization. As such the Organization with the name of Muslim League was formed. And among others, Syed Ahmed Khan, Dr. Iqbal and Mr. Jinnah in succession demanded separate rights and rule for Muslims. These two organizations namely the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League were responsible in the main to beat up communal feelings to the highest pitch and put Hindus and Muslims in the two hostile and irreversible positions and camps, which ultimately brought about the partition of the sub-continent into Pakistan and Bharat. If one were to analyze the positions taken by Congress and League and the thesis that Hindus and Muslims were two separate nations, it would he hard to accept their conclusion.
The whole Sub-Continent of India consisted of congress of races and people who spoke different languages, adopted different cultures, had specific geographical territories and boundaries, special historical traditions and different nationalities. Religion alone did not make nationality. Both parties on account of their vested interests adopted and used religions as basis of nationalities beneficial to them. But there were some broad-minded politicians like Raj Gopal Acharia, Moulana Obedullah Sindhi, Shaikh Abdul Majid Sindhi and myself who considered Indian Sub-Continent consisting of various nationalities on the basis of separate territories, languages, cultures, past traditions, political and economic interests and that is why they advocated the idea of Confederation of India, but such genuine voices were arbitrarily partitioned. The pseudo-independence brought about many miseries. But the Sindhis have contained to endure endless sufferings. The resolution passed in Lahore in 1940 promised in unequivocal terms the independent and sovereign states. But the post independence period has not only failed but has falsified the hopes 0 f liberty, equality, fraternity an d prosperity and has deliberately insisted upon religious conformity as a political tactics to deprive the people in general and Sindhis in particular of their nationhood, language and even ethos. Except Israel, no country is based on the religion. Like Israel, Pakistan had existence prior to its emergence on 14-8-1947. The new country was separated into two parts, the East and West. The new country adopted a language in flight and in search of a refuge as the only national language and Sindh has one of the world's most developed language. The state power was put in the hands of Punjabis and Muhajirs, who came from India. From this new formation the Bengalis and Sindhis suffered the most. On account of democratic basis the power was to be handed over to Bengalis, but instead it was handed over to Muhajirs and Punjabis. Millions of people migrated from India according to preplanning to fill the void left by Hindus and occupy the places of powers, eminence and importance coupled with grabbing property, urban and rural, under the patronage of new state headed by Liaquat Ali, himself an immigrant from U.P. As a blue print in advance of the independence, the Punjabis took the lion's share in the usurpation and domination. Newly formed Government made its inauspicious augury by branding any criticism, dissenting voice or meet opposition as the very act of reason against state and Islam and were labeled as provincialists. Foreign agents and proponents of fissiparous tendencies and were hunted by fanatics and favorites alike. The nationalists of Bengal and Sindh, who had different views whom the rulers were punished and imprisoned. After long suffering and humiliations the Bengalis decided to free themselves from the clutches of Punjabis and Muhajirs. But Sindh still continues to remain enslaved in the name of Islam, Muslim nation and Pakistan. Sindhis have suffered a lot. The story of their sufferings has been narrated in the first Chapter. Therefore, it is not necessary to repeat it.
Now let us narrate some good points of the British period. It will be wrong not to narrate them:
At present the upper class of Sindh i.e. Pirs, Zamindars, Mullahs, Bureaucracy and majority of politicians are serving as agents of imperialists like Punjabi and Muhajirs to the detriment of Sindhi culture and civilization, language and literature, identity and tradition and causing incalculable harm to the eternal principles of peace and love. Imposition of alien language, culture, music, civilization queer interpretations of religion by mercenaries are the lethal weapons that are being used against our existence as a nation. The Government machinery, newspapers radio, books and television and other mass media means are in addition. Schools, Colleges, Roads, Cities, Ports, Libraries are named after the enemies of Sindh. Our common people and middle class are being compelled by the vicious circumstances to live a life of subjection and servitude. Nationalism is considered as sin. Enmity against Sindh is rewarded with prosperity and prestige.
In the every establishment of Pakistan, Sindh's sufferings are too numerous to count. Its very fundamentals are at stake. It is therefore necessary that the harm to the heritage of Sindh be narrated in detail:
I) THE SEPARATE NATION-HOOD OF SINDH:
Sindh since last 5000 years has remained a separate country with typical characteristics of its own. Many tributaries of Dravadian and Aryan culture and civilization have strengthened its language, literature, culture and civilization, its folklore and music, history and heroes.
During last 1500 years sinister attempts have been made to change the old culture and construct the new framework. But inspite of change of circumstances, we Sindhis have tried our level best, to protect our country, nation, language culture, national character and past traditions. But after the establishment of Pakistan we are seeing the sign of decay and decomposition of our heritage. The first assault is made on the separate existence of our country. Before the Britishers invaded and conquered Sindh, it had its own separate independent sovereign State. At present our separate existence and independence is being denied, in the name of Pakistan.
2) SINDHI LANGUAGE
Present Sindhi Language seems to be Prakirt of Indo-Aryan language, in which much words and phrases from Dravadian, Persian, Arabic, and Mangol languages have been added and adopted. This language's present script is Indo-Arabic script. It is a fact that Aryans came from the north-west in this country. Their language was called Indo-Aryan language. At present the Sub-Continent of India is divided in the two main languages. One part of it speaks Dravadian language like Telegue, Malayalm, Tamil etc. that are spoken in Southern India. The second part speaks Indo-Aryan language like Bengali, Gujrati, Marhati, Hindi, Punjabi, Kashmiri languages.
Aryans came and settled on the banks of Indus river. While they stayed there, the original words of Indus valley languages, Sindhi and Kashmiri, can be found because of the similarity of words. These Aryans with Indus valley's original language went to East of India to Magad and Bihar, they developed San skirt language. So Sindhi is the elder sister of Sanskrit. The other languages were developed from Sanskrit and so Sindhi is older on that account. Sindhi language is more ancient and important language of the Indo- Aryan languages. All other Indo-Aryan languages are part of Indo-Aryan Sanskrit language, through the local Prakirt, they evolved, but this remained restricted to Sanskrit. Bui Sindhi language is older than Sanskrit. It was enriched by northwestern Indus Valley Aryan's words treasure. It has got some words from the Moen-Jo-Daro Dravadian language also. It has also received several words from Pahlvi language of Persia. During Indus valley Koshan Family's domination, it added some words from their language. Finally it got enough material after the invasion of Arabs. This Sindhi language is among the main languages of the world like Dravadian, Persian, Sanskrit and Arabic. It has been enriched through all the influences of their languages and culture, therefore, no other Indo-Aryan language can compete with the rich vocabulary of Sindhi language. In its developmental and evolutionary history, Sindhi language has become richer than other Indo-Aryan languages. Sindhi language on account of the historical evolution has gained a higher and superior linguistic and grammatical standards than the other Indo-Arian languages. As Sindhi language has acquired its roots from earlier Indus valley Arian and Dravadian languages, from which afterwards Sanskrit was also made. Yet Sindhi language contains several original words which subsequently were borrowed by Sanskrit Therefore Sindhi and Sanskrit contain several words, which are similar and do not make part of other Indo-Arian languages. On account of its connection with other International languages Sindhi contains such words of special and typical meaning which are not to be found In other Indo-Arian languages. Such is its richness that it has names and nomenclature for each thing, big or small, significant or tribes. There are plenty of examples when even a dozen of names have been assigned to animate and inanimate objects depending upon its age, shape etc. words giving many meanings are also in abundance for example camel and horse are given different names, according to their age, color and species. There is no such example of richness in any other Indo-Aryan language. In Sindhi language every object and subject and their parts have been given different names. Best and weaving machine, Persian wheel and plough and their parts for example have been named differently, depending upon their size and functions. In the land of Sindh from smaller to bigger grass herbs and tealeaves have been assigned different names. Such detailed names are not to be found in any other language except Sindhi. The result is that in Sindhi there is such a great vastness of material by which different things can be assigned. Moderns Indo-Arian languages even for the different names of different things are dependent upon other languages. Urdu for example is almost extremely dependant upon borrowed material. Sindhi has got great potentiality to coin and invent the new names for educational, Fine Arts and other fields. In its comparison Urdu is deficient and dependent upon outside material. Historical evolution and international language connection have already added enormous amount of words and novelty. This language has got treasurer of its own; the completeness of which can hardly be found in any other language's grammar. On account of that expression of views in any field of endeavor becomes complete. Even the European specialists and researchers who have studied Sindhi grammar, admit that Sindhi is richer and more evolved language among the Indo-Arian languages. Captain Eastwic and Dr. Trump who had written Sindhi grammar bear testimony to this fact, which in addition is supported in "Indian languages Survey Volume No. 8" also.
At present such a developed and complete language is being ignored and not given its rightful place. Instead Urdu is made the national language of the country. Sindhi is exiled from schools, colleges, universities, and courts and there is a conspiracy to make it extinct.
3. SINDHI CITIZENSHIP
In the past Chapter I have narrated that Sindh's citizenship, planning, construction and drainage system were advanced to such an extent that no other country in the world can give a parallel example. Moen-Jo-Daro city is entirely built with baked bricks and its streets and roads were constructed according to plan. Every house had well and bathrooms. For the sewerage water there was planned tiled drainage system, which led to the big drains till such waste was put away from the city. In the middle of city there was big swimming pool and separate bath rooms, which had got stairs for going down to the pool. It appears that a big swimming pool was constructed as a common bath. In it, there was arrangement of water coming from outside and used water to be drained to other side. Walls of houses were strong and wide, which have remained there even after the passage of 5000 years. In the city there are traces of a big hall with pillars, which might have been used for public gathering or some prayer house or city hall. The streets were constructed with baked bricks and there were brick houses constructed like godowns. Beside the swimming pool, there were places for sitting and while bathing, for keeping clothes and other articles. In the town there was a big market and it was used as a center for merchandise, of town. On account of planned construction, great expenditure must have been incurred which depicts skill and prosperity. For baking the bricks there must have been many kilns. It seems the construction at that age had reached the great progress . From excavations, the stamps, the statues of men and utensils made of clay and the toys, bullock-carts made of clay show that this art-also had reached great progress. After that, in the days of Buddhism, the Stupas of Buddha are seen and nearby them, there were buildings or dwellings of Bikshus. In terms of time, earlier than the Moen-Jo-Daro, some places a found in Sindh, which are also mostly constructed in baked bricks. When the greater part of world used to pass nomadic life, here in Sindh irrigation and trade reached at a stage which made the country rich and prosperous. The city life had progressed much. That period was 3500 to I500 B.C. which can be called Dravadian civilization and citizenship period. Between 2000 years and 1500 B.C. some different tribes of Aryans immigrated on this side, where they conquered towns and villages of Sindh and settled. Somehow the climate change brought changes in the Monsoon season also. The big forests were reduced and buildings with pacca brick houses had changed into mud brick houses. Some remains of such towns are still seen upto this time. For instance Alor, Birhamanabad, CHANHOON-JO-DARO, Thukarjo-Daro, Bhambhore and some Buddhist Stupas have been found. All these excavations were carried out during the British period. After the establishment of Pakistan Government there has not been any substantial excavation so nothing of substance has been added to excavation and archives. One doesn't know, that during the Moen-Jo-Daro period the system was in the hands of Panchayats or some sort of Syndicates. I think the system of Rajas (Monarchy) had not started as yet, because use no buildings like palaces have been found. It is possible that (luring the Arian days the citizens might have Panchayats or Raja system of Government. It is possible in the small villages and the scattered huts and hamlets that the people might have remained under the influence of Sardars, Ratibals, Waderas etc. Soon after that Rajas might have started ruling whom through Waderas and Sardars may have started administering the country. During these days the training of elephants for the purpose of war or travelling might have been vogue, horses might have been used for riding or pulling carts. During the Maha Bharat war, it seems Raja Jaidarith went to the support of Korwas. But it cannot be found out from which side of Sindh he came. It is generally said that the period of Maha Bharat war was about 1000 years B.C.
Towns like Barhmanabad, Bhambhore, Patala, Sehwan that have been found probably belong to the period of Persians and Greeks. Alexander the Great, his Commander Damitrious ruled Patala present Hyderabad. Sehwan and Rohri towns also seem to have existed during that period. Indus river seems to have been changing its course from time to time. In these days most of cultivation was done through inundation of river. It is possible that at certain places, some wells or small canals were used for the purpose of cultivation. The majority of people depended upon agriculture, cattle breeding, fishing and passed nomadic life. At some places they used to live in wooden huts which because of the change of course of river, they used to shift from place to place. For the protection or security of the people the Sardars, Waderas, Nawabs, Arababs, Jams, Ranas used to carry on the administration. That period seems to have continued upto 500 A.C.
After that on account of foreign invasions the village life seems to have been disturbed. First Parthians and Sythians followed it. The detailed information about these things is not a valuable. After that the Arabs conquered Sindh Debal Port Nerun Kot, Sehwan, Alor, Barhmanabad were the towns where it seems the Arabs had their cantonments. Arabs themselves being from nomadic tribes did not give enough attention to the constructions of towns. They lived like parasites and looted Sindh's
property and used to send some back to Arabia. They exploited and weakened the people in the name of religion. The Arabs pretended to be learned Scholars, religious leaders and the superstitious people started venerating and following them. Their big beard, big turbans and big coats added to their artificiality. The buildings used by Arabs were called 'Khankahs'. Their graveyards and Mausoleums and religious educational institutions became their centers. The Arian religion had some influence over Sindh, but on account of the influence of Mullahs, Pirs and Arab imperialists the people were dominated and religion of Islam was used for their vested interests. As is normal with all invaders and power-hungry upsurges, the Arabs also started battling and fighting over possession, property and power. Booty in main became the bone of contention. As such they faced civil discard and wars among themselves. They lost their original favor. This provided an opportunity to the local population to regain their power and people started to revive their customs and religious beliefs. But because of the continuous occupation by foreign invaders, qualities of internal unity, self-defense, organization and will had almost vanished. Hence they were Makli. Pir Husamuddin Rashdi a noted scholar and author of 'Makli Nama' has given enough information about this graveyard in this book. In the same manner in Rohri and Sukkur there ire several monuments of Sindh's last period and in Sehwan the mausoleum of Lal Shahbaz. In Lukhi the tomb of Shah Saddar in Baghban Makhdoom Bilawal mosque at Sukkur Khairuddin Shah's mausoleum, at Bhit Shah, Shah Latif's tomb, at Hala Makhdoom Nooh’s tomb, at Matiari Sakhi Hashim Shah's tomb, Shah Karim’s tomb of Bulri and many others are the additional monuments in memory of the saints of Sindhi and which demonstrate architectural excellence also. There are other milestones also worth mentioning. Rupa Mari, Samoi, Vigih Kot were Soomra's towns, whose old remnants can be seen even today. Ranikot seems to have been built during the Persian Empire, which is one of the biggest forts of the world. These are the remnants of Sindh's architecture.
The rule of Kalhoras an(I Mirs has left impressible monuments like Hyderabad Fort, Mausoleums and tombs of Qalandar Lal Shahbaz, Shah Latif Bhitai, Kudabad Mosque, Mian Yar Mohammed Kalhoro, Mian Naseer Mohammed, Mian Noor Mohammed, Mian Sarfaraz and Mian Ghulam Shah and some small forts. The British period is an advent of rogress in the fields of communications, irrigation, education, language and literature. They constructed railway lines on both sides of the Indus river near Kotri, Sukkur and Rohri. They dug irrigation canals on Perennial basis. They built the Inspection Bungalows for smooth administrative purposes and roads throughout Sindh. They constructed Karachi Port near Kiamari, and started schools and colleges. They gave Sindh the Sindhi script and started the primary education throughout Sindh. So at the time of their leaving Sindh had over thousand primary schools giving jobs to thousands of teachers and education to lacs of students. They attached importance to local and foreign trade.
When Sindhis found that their merger in Bombay Presidency was harmful their interests they started movement for separation from Bombay. The British respected public opinions and separated Sindh from Bombay. They gave provincial Assembly and Government to Sindh. When Britishers divided India in to Bharat and Pakistan, there was great bloodshed and millions of people left their houses and migrated to safer areas. Though the initial necessity of migration has mitigated yet the influx of aliens and strangers in Sindh has remained unabated. This has given rise to apprehension and fears that there is an entrenched conspiracy to colonize Sindh and rob all of its rich heritage and resources. Alien names for educational institutions, satellite towns, roads, streets, ports and venues are a mischief against history. Islam and unity of Pakistan have been exploited to conceal the guilt and use them as ready-made apparatus. Neocolonialists as their agents to corrupt character and consciousness of Sindhi masses are using the supper classes Sindhis, always of servile nature. What are at stake are not only the usurpation of rights and our rightful place but also the very existence of Sindh as a country and Sindhis as a nation.
Sindh's intellectual class refuses to be trapped by the interpretations, of Islam as given by Iqbal, Maududi or Arabs. They continue to follow the teaching of Shah Latif, Sachal Sarmast and Sami. They prefer to practice, preach and teach the eternal principles of Humanity, love, non-violence, live and let live. An over-whelming majority of them is hardly influenced by imported ideas and ideologies and do not try to graft or transplant them on the sacred soil of Sindh that I am hopeful, that they will.
Shah Latif and other Sindhi poets, in the legend of Marvi, have no doubt enthused patriotic fervor but that is not of a very distinct past. Sindhis have been singing patriotic songs, hymns arid rhymes. Their songs abound with the use of word 'Maru' meaning co-patriots and Desh, means Sindh. One can imagine the intensity of their love for Co-inhabitants and motherland from the following sayings
ii) In the name of religion to conquer the other countries, nations. The citizens of those countries are forcibly made slaves and used for furtherance of their vested interests.
iii) The freedom of other nations and persons is denied and in the name of Khilafat, the Arab imperialism is established and in Pakistan Punjabis call themselves the custodians of Islam.
iv) The ideas that Arabia, its people, water and dust are pious and to die in Arab country will mean salvation is circulated with zeal and enthusiasm. To the center of Arab imperialism the performance of Hajj, where the old Arab customs are performed is considered a duty.
v) In the name of religion the conquering nation is entitled to subjugate the vanquished nationalities.
ii) For the spread of Communist theory bloody revolution is considered necessary.
iii) Communism for the achievement of its object believed to use all sorts of tactics because it believes in the policy of end justifies the means, according to which concepts of good and the bad, right and wrong, lose their meaning.
iv) Communism prefers its theories to nations or individuals. They consider class struggle more useful for their purpose than the nations and individuals. Communism gives national freedom secondary consideration. Communism, believing in class struggle, indirectly works against the common national interest.
v) Communism is based on international theory and does not give any
importance to national interests. Therefore national interests take secondary
"After the end of Arab rule Sindhis reached the stage of such toleration, that Hindus used to go the shrines of Muslims and asked for their guidance and used to go to mosque and Madarsah and took education from Muslim saints and teachers. On the other side Muslim fakirs and Sufis used to go to Yogis, Saniasies, Adhutis, Nangas and visited their temples and religious places. They used to listen the teachings of Hindu Dervishes. They used to go to Buddha Stupas and learn lessons from their Bikshus.
Several Muslims kings, Waderas, Jagirdars, in order to respect the Hindu feelings, would not slaughter cows nor eat beef. Several Muslims gave Hindu saints their own Muslim names, as Jind Pir Rohri was Khawaja Khizir, Udero Lal was called Shaikh Tahir. Muslims used to go to Hindu fairs and started the fairs of Shiv, Gaji Shah, Water springs at Lukhi, Amir Pir, near Jhumpir and near Mangho Pir. They met on those fairs, Qalandar Lal Shahbaz's fakirs used to shave their beards and hair and used to stamp themselves. At the time of each sunrise and sun-set they used to conduct arti, which means, they used to drum beating, ringing bells and playing flutes etc. At the time of evening all the fakirs used to meet together in line, like the Shivas worshippers, and chanted certain rituals like Shivas. At Qalandar Lal Shahbaz, Gaji Shah and several other mausoleums outside the doors they used to ring bells like Hindus, who on entering the doors used to ring them. In the tomb of Qalandar Lal Shahbaz, in the western wing there used to be one stone tailed 'Makhi' (Honey) and 'Makhan' (Butter). Originally the stone was called Uni and lingum. Most of the ladies used to pray at that stone. At the time of fair, drums were beaten and dance was carried on, which was called Dhamal'. That was the custom of Shivas Fakirs. Inside Dargah, at the time of lamp burning the special prayer was performed like the system of Mandars. The ancient customs of marriages like chopping of trees, keeping knife with the bridegroom, garlanding the bride and the groom bringing their heads together in Kiss-like style and procession on horseback, are still in existence. They were originally adopted from Hindu customs. The Muslims Fakirs like Hindu dervishes put on Kanthas and flouts around their neck at the time of fairs. They used to carry Mahindi and glass candles and cotton seed and went in procession to the shrine. The people still go to Mangho Pir and offer beef and food to crocodiles and go to Ganji Mountain, Hinglaj, and Lahut for visiting the shrines. Some people still hoist flags on trees. All this means that by adopting mixed traditional customs and rituals, the people of Sindh showed religious broad-mindedness and sense of toleration.
The palace is one but it has thousand doors and millions windows, peep from any you will find the same Being.
Sindhis believed in co-existence and close social relationship. Both Muslims and Hindus not only attended but also participated actively in one another's ceremonies like marriage fairs etc. Against the spirit of such toleration, Aurangzeb government policy and Sarhandi Pir's fanatism influenced Mullah Hashim Thatvi who issued religious edicts to spread fanatism against Hindus. But soon Sindh's Main Saints and poets like Shah Inayat Sufi, Shah Latif, Rohal Fakir, Sufi Khair Mohammed Sam, Dilpat and Sami tried to rectify the atmosphere of hatred and preached that GOD is one and Omnipresent. One of such Saint Poets same pleads this line of thinking:
The Muslims accepted the influence of Yogis Veragies and traveled the country far and wide. Shah Latif's praise of Ganja Mountains, Hinglaj is part of that wandering. Shah Latif says:
Another great Sufi poet of Sindh Sachal Sarmast has put it in these words:
Persian poets like Sami, Fariduddin Attar, Moulana Roomi, Mansoor Hillaj, Hafiz Shirazi etc., all preached love of mankind they had acquired from the teachings of Persian Prophet Mani. Sindh's poets Shah Inayat, Shah Latif, Rohal Fakir, Bedil, Sami, Misri Shah and others introduced love legends in the form of folklore in Sindhi literature. One poet has said:
These Sufis gave the teachings of love. Shah Latif represents those in this verse;
After thousand of years of experience and historical knowledge every nation acquires some national character which becomes national heritage. Sindhis also after the experience, difficulties and experiments of hundreds of years have acquired their national character, for the preservation and protection of which they are prepared to sacrifice everything.
i) Crusade for a right and just cause, enhance dignity of man and preserve
ii) Dedicate and if necessary lay down one's life for the motherland and protect its frontiers and the flag.
iii) Protect the weak, respect for women folk and give security to foreigners and strangers (unfortunately this quality of theirs has put Sindhis to a lot of trouble and turbulence).
Leaving aside the old stories I am narrating some stories from the days of Raja Dahir. When Sindhi's ruler Raja Dahir came to know that the grandson of Prophet Muhammad of Arabia. The Arabs for whom Prophet Muhammad had worked threatened Imam Hussain, to death, he sent the message to Imam Hussain offering him protection and refuge in case the latter felt insecure and unsafe in Arabia.
Imam Hussain accepted the offer but could not reach Sindh. It is to be remembered that Raja Dahir ascended the throne in fifty-nine Hijjri. Imam Hussain’s martyrdom took place after two years in sixty-one Hijjri and Arabs invaded Sindh in 92 Hijjri. To escape the same kind of fate Mohammed Bin Alafi came to Sindh with five hundred persons and remained under the protection of Raja Dahir who welcomed him and also arranged for his livelihood. On account of that the Commander of Yazid, Hijaj Bin Yousuf sent word to Raja Dahir that Mohammed Bin Alafi and his men were traitors and, therefore, they should be returned to Arabia. Raja Dahir, who knew how Arabs martyred Imam Hussain, could not send back these protected persons to be killed. Therefore, he sent message back that it was the custom of Sindh that they could not return the persons whom they have accepted as protected ones. Over which Hijaj Bin Yousuf sent his cousin and son-in-law Mohammed Bin Qassim to fight against Raja Dahir. Raja Dahir thus scarified his life but did not send the protected persons back to Arabia.
Now the new imperialists have declared the invader and enemy of Sindh, Mohammed Bin Qassim, as a hero of Islam and have constructed port, college, libraries, roads to commemorate the memory of this tyrant Arab. Sindh has produced traitors like Chanesar. But Sindh has given births also Dodas, as heroes of Sindh. The nationalist Sindhis consider Mohammed Bin Qassim as usurper and his invasion as against the spirit of Islam and curse him. After sometime during the rule of Soomras the Delhi government under Allauldin Khilji invaded Sindh and put certain conditions to stop the conquest. The conditions were that the daughter of Soomra king should he given as present and sovereignty of Delhi government to be acknowledged. The Soomras knew very well that it was impossible for that small kingdom to face the Delhi emperors. So true to the traditions not to surrender but die on battlefield, they went to the battlefield and died fighting. But before they sent their women folk and children to the Kutch ruler Jam Abro for protection. The Abra Sardars by accepting the responsibility of the protection of the Soomra families infuriate the Delhi emperor and were ready to fight against him, but would not surrender the families. Shah Latif of Bhit in the following verse has praised the laudable and heroic deed of the Abras
When Shershah Soori defeated Mughal emperor Humayoon the latter fled to Sindh to be under the protection of Sindhis. Akbar the great was born at Umerkot during that flight of his parents. His brother Aurangzeb defeated Shah Jehan’s eldest son Dara Shikoh. The former fled to Sindh for refuge, which was given to him. But Khan of Kalat tempted him to conic to his State. The Khan betrayed him and handed him over to Aurangzeb's soldiers for ransom, who subsequently murdered him. That was the contrast yet Mullahs call the fratricidal emperor Aurangzeb as Mohiuddin, which means the life Giver of Islam. No bigger sarcacism against Islam can be made if people like Aurangzeb could be named as life Givers of Islam. From the above two examples it is clear that Sindhis extended traditional hospitality an(i protection to all those who were tyrannized and tormented by their enemies.
lie gave protection to Mohammed Bin Alafi, which resulted in war with Arabs arid his defeat.
b) During the days of Khilji Empire when Delhi ruler invaded Sindh, Dodo Soomro fought against the foreign invader till last. He preferred to die for Sindh rather than to accept humiliating conditions of Delhi rulers. This is yet another glorious example of the supreme sacrifice in the cause of Sindh.
c) After the demise of Jam Nizamuddin Sammo his son Jam Feroze became the ruler. He indulged in luxuries and worldly pleasure and did not pay attention to his duties as ruler. He committed a suicidal mistake of recruiting alien Pathans as his guards who in tact were the spies of Shah Baig-Arghoon, who had earlier deputed his brother Sultan Mohammed Mirza to attack Sindh. But Jam Nizamuddin’s able Commander Dulah Darya Khan, near Sibbi defeated Mirza. Subsequently during the days of Jam Feroze on account of his misdeeds Dulah Darya Khan left his service and spent a life of seclusion in his village near Talti. Finding this, an opportune time for the invasion pathan agents sent word to Shah Baig Arghoon, telling him that Jam Feroze was weak and coward, and Dulah Darya Khan had left, hence this was the good opportunity to invade Sind. Shah Baig Arghoon invaded Sindh and Jam Feroze was unable to face them and left his capital Thatta and fled to Pir Patho and left his subjects in the lurch. Jam Feroze realizing his mistake, sent a word to Dulah Darya Khan to fight the foreign invaders. Though it was too late but yet this old Commander could not refuse the call for the cause and immediately rushed to the capital and died fighting against foreign invaders.
d) Forth instance is that near Talti, Rana Rinmal Singh Sodho, Dulah Darya Khan's son Mohammed Khan and Makhdoom Bilawal's followers jointly faced the Arghoons and died in the battlefield.
e) During the days of Jam Nizamuddin Sammo one Syed Miran Mohammed Jaunpuri started calling himself Mehdi and agitated the Muslims to jointly prepare for the spread of Islam, so that there should be rule of Muslims in greater part of the world. Jam Nizamuddin and his Prime Minister considered this move to be a conspiracy against the unity of Sindhis. Dulah Darya Khan along with his friends Hyder Shah Sanai and Makhdoom Bilawal countered this move successfully by driving away Syed Miran Mohammed Jaunpuri from Sindh. It was due to this fact that after the conquest of Sindh during the days of Shah Hassan Arghoon son of Shah Baig Arghoon, after getting edict from servile Mullahs, got Makhdoom Bilawal murdered through Ghana, (oil Spinner). Thus Makhdoom Bilawal preferred martyr in to surrender.
f) Shah Inayat Sufi of Jhook was believer in Monism (Wahdat-ul-Wajood) and he believed in the unity of Hindus and Muslims. And the followers of Fanatic Mullahs, who were the followers of Sarhandi Pirs, insisted upon division between Hindus and Muslims on religious basis. Delhi's Governor on the instigation of local Zamindars, Sardars and Pirs sent army against Shah Inayat Sufi, who did not surrender. The Mughal Governor sent for Shah Inayat Sufi for negotiations giving him solemn assurance of his safety. The Governor took oath on the Holy Qura’an, a traditional test of trust, to reassure him of his safety. Though the Shah knew it was only a tactics and there was a conspiracy to kill him. But he preferred to go to Thatta because he did not want any more bloodshed of his companions and followers. The outcome was a foregone conclusion. Shah Inayat was treacherously murdered. The role of Mullahs always at the beck and call of the ruler played their dirty role in the murder of this great progressive patriot. Said Shah Inayat before his death:
g) Hoshu Shidi was Commander General of the Mirs' Army. While war started between Mirs and Britons Hoshu knew fully well that the odds weighed heavily against him for two important reasons. The first was the modern weaponry of Britons and other was the Sindhi rulers were divided among themselves Despite these apparent odds, Hoshu did not surrender but laid down his life defending his motherland. The last words attributed to this great Soldier of Sindh has become the legend and symbol of valor and courage and become quotable for all patriots and nationalists. He said:
Enormous examples of sacrifice, martyrdom and valor can be narrated from the history of Sindh. But I feel the few examples given above can serve the purpose of patriotic and nationalist embodiment. To sum it up let us quote Shah again:
Death that eternal truth should have even otherwise come to her, but the death by drowning had made her immortal."
III) TO SEE THE "BELOVED" EVERYWHERE
The religious animosities apart, Shah Latif has contained the mankind against personal enmities, selfishness and self-adulation and adoration he says:
Sindhis in general have always preferred the interests of Sindh over vested interests. The nationalists now days have dispatched their differences and are struggling against the akin bondage and domination. But unfortunately agents provocateurs and Fifth Colonialists under the garb of one or the other imported ideology try to subvert the struggle and bring about division and discord among Sindhis and as such help and support the usurpers to retain and sustain their vested interests. Mullah’s religion is mostly quarrelsome and creates confusion more than it clears. But Sindhi saints have digested and propagated the human message of Shaikh Saadi saint poet from Iran. He pleads in this way:
THE MIXED CIVILIZATION
After that came the period of mixed civilization. The civilization has continued for past one thousand five hundred years. It is the amalgam of Arabian, Pathans, Mughal and European cultures. At present a clash for supremacy between Arabian, Pathan and Mughal civilizations on one side and the indigenous Sindhi Arian civilization and culture on the other is taking place. This clash is based on the domination through political power, economic exploitation and difference in ideologies. Each one of them deserves no special treatment here because, political problem has been treated in the Second Chapter, and economic issues will be discussed in the Fourth. It will suffice to say here that during the past one thousand five hundred years, Sindhis have suffered because of these problems more than they can stomach. This does not mean that the continuous violence against their integrity and identity has plagued them into deep desperation and frustration. On the contrary, every adverse Situation has given rebirth to their awareness and consciousness to the crises. Following are some of the examples of such awareness:
Whatever the celebrations and ceremonies of the rulers of Pakistan, the frauds perpetuated in the name of unity, solidarity and stability of Pakistan, the people of Sindh in general and the youth in particular have a unanimous reply in the words of Shah Latif;
Shah Latif has put this approach to national life in the following verse:
"None could have heard the name of Sohni, had she not bravely drowned herself in the river to meet her Mehar. Death is inevitable but by embracing it she immortalized herself"
These and other precedents infuse spirit of chivalry and gentility and keep Sindhis attached to the noble tradition to protect their dignity, self-respect and love for motherland whatever the cost.
At present the new imperialists in the name of Islam, Pakistan, power temptations attracted by threats and punitive and other repressive measures arc committing frauds by fake ideas and ideals and are trying their fraudulent methods and fear of punishment so as to confuse Sindhis and erase their valuable national traditions. But I am sure that the people of Sindh in general and the youth in particular will give no heed to such camouflages and follow the advice rendered by Shah Latif;
Every activity, significant or otherwise has a motivating force behind it. Even the universe was not created without a purpose. Says the Holy Quran "Is the creation of this world without any Scheme of things?"
The common use to which literature is put is either for its own sake or literature for progress and amelioration. Both branches are necessary to provide food for sentiments and principles. But it is necessary to determine which of the two uses be preferred. If we were to survey the field of literature, we come to only one conclusion that our classical poets and prose writers have focussed their total attention on the second branch. Someone had said:" It is always easier and more effective to narrate the distant and borrowed legends similes and stories and apply their morals by implication upon one 5 own people". So did our Stalwarts of classical literature like Shah Latif, Sachal Sarmast, Rohal Fakir, Shah Nasir, Bedil Fakir, Misri Shah, Sami and Dalpat. All of them conveyed their ideals of valor, supreme sacrifice, patriotism, nationalism, traditionalism overcoming odds, simplicity and unity of human race through the immortal legends of Sohni, Sassi, Lela, Chanesar, Marvi, Jam Tamachi and others. No classical poet could ignore this aspect of literature.
But unfortunately, with progress of time, because of the corrupt influence of the feudal system.... writers’ pernicious influence Urdu and Persian poetry, many poets and writers started indulging in mental luxury and were fascinated in the dark and snake like long hair, rosy cheeks, like curls and curves, women and wine and the rose and offered their soul and body for the sake of the beloved. On the other hand the prose written prepared literature with fairy tales, non-existent myths and acted as courtiers of the kings and wrote to please their ears. The influence of western countries, their tyrannical domination and exploitation have induced a section of youngsters to divert their writings towards nationalism, social progress ethical improvement and love for freedom and modern progressive thinking and attract the people's attention towards creating awakening for the emancipation of the country. It seems that in the beginning the conservative and fanatic people and reactionaries trained their guns against these newcomers in the field of literature.
But nothing can stop the forward march and as such the reactionaries and the conservatives gradually lost their influence and hold. Today Pir Husamuddin, Mohammed Ibrahim Joyo, Moulai Chhedai. Najam Abbassi, Niaz Humayuni. Ibrahim Munshi and many other patriotic poets and literary men have not been given their due place but I think that the day is not far off when their voices will be heard every where and reactionaries and mercenaries will be heard no more. But it is not so easy as it appears to be. All Teachers, Professors, Students, Literary Men, Writers and enlightened people will have to try jointly to improve the state of affairs in our literary field. Our intellectuals in comparison to Urdu writers are not given as many facilities and encouragement. This thing must also be borne in mind that the reactionary and retrogressive interpretation of Islam and the neo-imperialist or communist-oriented people, preaching and propagating Sindhi nationalism must be understood in its correct perspective. There could be snakes in the grass. The real Sindhi nationalist must be aware of such planted persons and imported ideologies.
Our society has been a perennial prey of polarization. On one side are persons who are rotting in wealth and live in luxury, wear costly clothes and enjoy all comforts of life. On the other side are the multitude who live even below poverty level, half-fed and under-nourished, half-clothed and bare-footed, unemployed or underemployed. This paradox has created class consciousness and conflicts. Socialists put the blame on baneful effects of the unbridled capitalism. They, therefore, advocate redistribution of national wealth on a vertical basis i.e. from rich to the poor. But present may not hold for long. Unless the present chaotic economic conditions are drastically changed in favor of the common man, any spark may start conflagration and just the whole social fabric. The present should be taken as an emerging future. The thunder is down under. Man has been in search of a Utopia. Who knows the search may become a reality.
Soviet Russia and China under communism have made bold attempts to alleviate the miseries of the poor but have not been able to achieve their objective to raise the standards of living nor improve subsequently the quality of life. The reasons may be like the lack of advanced technical know-how an scientific application, difference in fertility and productivity of land, difference is qualities and capacities of individuals etc. In fact these countries have only replaced traditional classes with new classes of bureaucrats and party officials and workers on one side and the rest on the other.
The believers preach the people to swap their good deeds for eternal peace and happiness and for the life beyond death irrespective of the vagrancies of life here and the atheists want to cash their efforts here and now. But unfortunately in spite of the expulsion of competing ideologies, communism has failed to deliver the goods in proportion to the sacrifices and services rendered by the people of Soviet Russia and China.
The followers of Islam boasted that they would bring about economic
political moral and intellectual equality and inaugurate a world
of unity, peace and progress. But in spite of claims, they not only did
not bring about this golden age but invaded the civilized countries, looting
and killing many persons, and made actions on the basis of conducting crusades
and holy wars (Jehad). So is the philosophy of communism. Basing their
actions on the theory of "end justifies the means", the communists use
all means of repression at their disposal and advocate bloody revolution.
They preach class-hatred, indoctrinate and brain wash people and convert
them to their line of thinking and action even if use of force be necessary.
Both doctrines, Islam and Communism, inspite of their tall claims, have
failed to eliminate poverty, inequities and inequalities, which brings
us back to our theme of observing the golden mean to avoid extremes in
our dress, living standards, necessities, comforts, luxuries and rationalize
our code of conduct and mode of living.
Man since the ages long ago had been sustaining himself and surviving whatever the conditions, helpful or hostile, the conditions changed and became less cruel, he felt relief and tried to control them for better. This is probably how he started his slow but gradual march for a free and full life. Along with the other progress, he made progress in his dietary habits. To his primitive food he added meat, fish, milk, butter even fruits. Afterwards mankind on the basis of religious ideologies was divided into two broad groups. One group became meat and beef eater and the other vegetarian.
In habitants of Sindh seem to have belonged to the former group at the time of Moen-Jo-Daro civilization. But after the invasion of Arians and their violent beliefs, they became mostly vegetarians. After the invention of fire, they learnt the art of cooking food. In its course of history Sindh has seen many vicissitudes. The Indus has changed its course from time to time thus creating deserts and deltas and making fertile and flourishing area. The monsoon season has changed and less rainfall change forest areas. Foreign invasion made city life less safe and people shifted to rural areas. The changed living conditions were probably responsible for change in dietary habits and people had simple food like Rice, Gowar, Bajra, Wheat, Milk, Curd, Butter, Fish and Meat. But with passage of time when the dynastic rules were established and city life started to grow once again, change in eatables must also have taken place. But that change or more nutritious food remained the privilege of the upper class few. The common man had to remain contended with his simple food. The ruling and the upper classes, because of their influence, had opportunities for more qualitative food. Before partition of the sub-Continent, Sindh was not over-populated and it could easily sustain its people and there emerged a middle class that could also afford better food. But the village life remained the same.
Though the food tastes have changed to some extent, yet by and large people still prefer their own way of cooking and preparation. No doubt it is delicious but is not without certain unhealthy effects. They are:
When Muslims came here as conquerors, they did not allow marriage with the followers of Vedic religions except the Christians and Jews. But even these two the system worked one way i.e. girls professing Christianity and Jewish religion were taken in marriage but Muslim girls were not allowed to marry non-Muslims except in case of the conversion of the litter to Islam. But during the rule of Mughals, several Muslims married Hindu girls without conversion and in rare cases Muslims were so vehemently opposed that even among the Muslims marriages were restricted to very near relatives, castes and tribes. Marriage outside these drawn lines was looked down upon. This ugly side of the custom resulted in a large number of life long unwed men and women. Added to these man-made dividing lines were family funds, quarrels over property and superiority complexes as other obstructions. The Hindu Caste system and religious arrogance of Muslims played a vital role in introducing these divisions and subdivisions.
Change of circumstances and times are not now becoming important factors for removal of these restrictions. Mass education, loosening of the grip of orthodox religion, weakening of prejudices and more frequent and free inter community relations are likely to remove many barriers and Sindhis might once again establish old customs. Pregnant as the freedom movement was with communal and religious prejudices it distanced the two inseparable communities, the Muslims and the Hindus, from each other. Both the post partition common sufferings and sorrows, adversities and constant coarsens and cruelties have cohered them once again. Partition displaced masses of men and many of them came to Sindh. Since they were imported from their homes and hearths, they nursed and nurtured vengeful weeds and poisonous plants in their psyche. Religious bigotry and claim for cultural domination pampering double riveted their arrogance. This attitude of the immigrants has created animosity and enmity. Unless they get rid of these unhealthy and unwholesome influences, they and we will suffer incessantly. The salvation of Sindh lies in following the teachings of Mystics, Secularism, Socialism and Nationalism, earlier the better.
The fanatic has always tried to sanctify every custom that has been frequently or constantly use in Arab Land and label other customs as against the spirit of Islam. Our self-appointed fanatic has persuaded even pressurized the people to give up their old customs. in fact religion has nothing to do with them and have been in usage by the nation as a whole throughout the ages. They are harmless national events only. One may ask that if the continuation of recent Arab customs of running between Safa and Marwa, circling round the Ka’aba, dressing in Ahram two piece unstitched apparel and sacrificing animals and not un-Islamic, then why discontinue the age old customs in Sindh. Arabs in fact were poor badouin nomads, and of culture and civilization, customs and traditions, they hardly knew any thing because these are the essential ingredients of settled civic affluent life.
As regards the rituals for the dead, they have been narrated in the previous chapter. Different countries and nations have different beliefs about Spirits and Souls. In the same manner the procedure for disposal of dead bodies is also different. Among them three kinds are worth-mention
RELIGIOUS AND NATIONAL FESTIVALS
The Government of Pakistan has recognized the Communist Countries like U.S.S.R., China and others but has banned Communist party and other parties that believe in Secularism. Simultaneously literature about these ideologies is readily available for sale. On one hand it portrays Pakistan as the fortress of Islam and the other literature on atheism and anti-Islam sells and circulates in abundance openly. Would one call this contradiction or hypocrisy on the part of the Successive Governments ? What is on the anvil and under hammer is only the literature on Sindh and Sindhi Nationalism. Not only such books are proscribed but the authors are also haunted as if they are heretics and renegades. We don't preach violence nor encourage use of force but reserve the right to preach and propagate the truth about Sindhi Nation's existence of about five thousand years. Speaking and writing about our separate independent nation is our fundamental right. For expressing my opinions about Sindhu Desh, I was imprisoned and detained for full twenty six years sans-trial, sans self defense and sans any formal charge and scores of supporters were also jailed. Circumstances as they have been made for us, we are fully justified in calling the successive rulers as neo-colonist and racists who have reduced us to the status of subjection. Such a malevolent behavior of the rulers has pushed us to the precipice, and created a positive reaction against what the rulers pretend to stand for. Their misdeeds misinterpretation and misconceptions are too numerous to count which have made Pakistan a place of ugly facts, a den of criminals and rapacious racists.
To escape from the atrocities of the respective rule of the Czar in Russia, the people of that country chose and embraced Communism purely an Atheist and Nationalist ideology. No wonder if the people of Sindh also look for outlets to unchain themselves. When that happens, no amount of fake ideologies, theocratic external and religious cants can stop them before achieving their objective. The rigors and repression of the racist rulers will not deter them.
The main ingredients of Sindhi Culture are
Shah Latif has very faithfully echoed Sindhi concept of non-violence in this verse:
In this Sindhi Dervishes are the followers of Krishin Buddha and Christ, Sindhi Dervishes fought against the unbridled lust and insatiable wants for power and wordily goods. They loved the Creator and the creatures and taught these glorious and noble lessons. They condemned violence as an animal instinct and successes achieved through violent means as not only temporary but deceptive as well. Service to humanity was the noblest in man and the greatest act of worship. Doctrines propagating, conquest of lands and conquering of free nations, domination of people by force and imposing servitude are perversions of religious faiths and revealed writs.
Live and let live. Co-existence and tolerance. These are the principles that Sindhi culture preaches. Sindhi Dervishes have always insisted on social instinct and gregarious nature of man. Says Shah Latif:
Co-existence can be achieved through tolerance only. Now a days the ruling class people follow the teachings of Prophets of doom and warmongers who eulogize violence and force. Predaceous animals like tigers, birds of prey like eagle blood thirsty swords and daggers are proudly projected as national symbols. All such symbols arouse instincts and awaken the brute in man. These people for limited purpose and personal or group power plunge humanity into catastrophe and calamity, destruction and delirium. Shah Latif for such people has something to say
World has witnessed the rise and fall of the fascists and autocrats like Hitler, Mussolini, Stalin, Tojo, Salazar, Franco and many more in the recent past. Everyone of then has ended ignominiously. So shall every dictator in future. History has put them in the dock and convicted them as foes of humanity.
ii) Between war and peace, violence and non-violence repression and freedom.
iii) Between good and evil, right and wrong.
iv) Between liberty of individuals and independence of nation on one side and denial of these through force or fraud.
v) Between love and hatred.
We may remain non-partisan in the following circumstances:
b) When the self-appointed and unaccredited agents of God claim superiority of their sect or faith and try to impose the same with force and as such sow the seeds of hatred, sectionalism and sectarianism to divide people.
c) When present preachers of the doctrines of Fascism, communism and
Imperialism propagating the supremacy of their theories create war neurosis.
Sindhi culture has been able to grasp the philosophy of (Monism) Vehdaniat, and therefore believes in oneness of creation. Says Shah Latif:
At present in the name of religion contempt and hatred have been taken as religion. Sindh's toleration and co-existence principles and messages are discarded. The ruling class may succeed in their policy temporarily. But ultimately their policy will not enhance the understanding between the people. But increase the suspicion more and more.
Pakistan's ruling class has created vested interests, therefore they see within Pakistan and outside it, only enemies created the following methods:
To remove the dangers of suspicions and fears our culture has preached the following remedies:
ii) In spite of the differences between religious outlook, political
and economic differences, people can still live together without war and
the basic principles for that one should give up selfishness and greed,
exploitation and usurpation.
The capitalist and imperialist countries not only look to the communist countries and people with hatred, but consider the persons having different views as the agents of foreigners and enemies of countries the communist countries create hatred in the name of class struggle. Pakistan is not free from the poison of both influences. The chief cause of this is wrong interpretation of Islam and theory of separate and chosen Muslim nation and refusal to accept the separate existence of smaller nations. Now the ruling class has coined new words against the nationalist. They call them communalists and agents of enemies, provocateurs, creators of disturbances, materialists etc. The situation has reached the stage that certain persons have started calling themselves the only custodians of Pakistan, Islam and Muslim nation and put ban on the free expression, speech and writing. Competing ideas are forbidden and dissent is outlawed. Talking about the rights of smaller nationalities of Sindhis, Balochies and Pashtoons amounts to inviting wrath and rigors of the powers that be.
It is matter of satisfaction that a large number of intelligentsia understands the mischief of wrong interpretation of the separate nationhood of Muslims, Pakistan and Muslim country and has started looking to it from proper perspective.
I have the frequent opportunity to talk to all kinds and classes of our people, particularly the educated youth and intellectuals. All of them have ceased to believe in the fascist interpretation of Islam. They don't believe in the so-called custodians of the faith. They are fed up with the perversions of interpretations that garb the Punjabi vested interests with Islam, country and nation.
Following are the arguments given by these young people and the intellectuals:
Their belief in God is that of Rabul Allamin (God of Universe) and Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) as Rahhamtul Almin (Blessing for the Universe) and the God and Prophet of Punjabi imperialism is exploitation. Only Jews called Jehovah has their own exclusive God.
Sindhis conception of Islam is a belief in the unity of Mankind and homogenous prosperity, peace and progress of mankind.
The concocted interpretation of Islam is creating enmity and hatred among the people of our country. Aggrandizement and usurpation, monopoly and domination of Punjabi vested interests are negations of the spirit of independence.
The unchangeable majority, the monopoly in the armed forces, greed for power and profit and insatiable burden on the national resources and exchequer coupled with religious haughtiness and arrogance have blinded the Punjabis to the robust reality and practical utility of smaller nations in a multi national country. Little do they realize that the unmitigated and arbitrary authority is creating convulsions of intense and immense magnitude. It is opening flood gates for alien ideologies and a bait for rupture. lam afraid that any small spark may gut the whole edifice and all will only wrong their hands and do nothing. The rulers ought to realize that today is the emerging tomorrow.
Our reading of history tells us that all prophet redeems, reformers and great men of all times and places have taught the lessons of love for human race. We do believe in their teachings and try to follow them. But the perverts, deranged and mamiacs propagate aggression, conquest and domination. They take a hedonistic pleasure in hatred for humanity.
lam of the opinion, that Sindhi Culture's basic principles of love, co-existence, non-violence and equality economic and political will triumph. When once we are free from the subjection and servitude of Punjabis, we will be able to universalize civility, civism and culture.
I have a feeling as strong as faith that Sindhis have a mission to accomplish. Once they decided to wake up, rise and walk again, a bright future is gestating in the womb of nature for them. No doubt the Punjabis by their military might are ruling Sindh. But there are no eternal masters and eternal slaves. The day is not far off when Sindh will free itself from the present clutches as it has done in the past. In the words of Comrade Hyder Bux Jatoi a great patriot: